Dou Mu (斗姆) is the mother of the stars of the Big Dipper. She is usually simply called the 'Big Dipper", or 'Primordial Sovereign of the Big Dipper" ( 斗母元君 Dou Mu Yuan Jun ). As the governor of the Pavilion of Heavenly Treasure ( 天宝阁 - Tian Bao Ge ), the Big Dipper, "as the mother of the Dipper Stars, produces the brilliant eyes of all the heavens. She, with the Dipper as her terrestrial spirit and water celestial spirit, is in charge of life."
In Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism, Dou Mu (斗姆) is Marici, who is a deva or bodhisattva associated with light and the sun. She is known as Molizhitian (摩利支天) or Molizhitian Pusa (摩利支天菩萨) in China and Marishi-ten (摩利支天) in Japan and in Tibetan as 'Odzer Canma', "Woman Endowed with Rays of Light").
Her complete name is 'Nine-Spirited Supreme Subtle Grandma Primordial Sovereign of the Night Rays and Golden Essence of the White Jade Tortoise Platform" ( 九灵太妙白玉龟台夜光金精祖母元君 - Jiu Ling Tai Miao Bai Yu Gui Tai Ye Guang Jin Jing ).
She is also called 'Pure Vital Breath Sovereign of the Big Dipper of Middle Heaven" ( 中天梵气斗姆元君 Zhong Tian Fan Qi Dou Mu Yuan Jun ), 'Primordial Queen of Supreme Simplicity, Purple Rays, Bright Wisdom and Kind Benevolence, and Heavenly Lord of Golden Perfected Holy Virtue" ( 中天梵气斗姆元君紫光明哲太素元后金真圣德天尊 - Zhong Tian Fan Qi Dou Mu Yuan Jun Zi Guang Ming Zhe Ci Hui Tai Su Yuan Hou Jin Zhen Sheng De Tian Zun ).
She is also called 'Great Perfect Queen of Moonlight" ( 大圆满月光王 - Da Yuan Man Yue Guang Wang ) and 'Great Heavenly Healer Sage and Eastern Imperial Sovereign of Benevolent Salvation" ( 东华慈救皇君天医大圣 - Dong Hua Ci Jiu Huang Jun Tian Yi Da Sheng ).
According to the Fundamental Destiny Life-Prolonging Heart Scripture of the Great Sagely Primordial Sovereign of the Supreme, Mysterious and Numinous Big Dipper ( 《太上玄灵斗姆大圣元君本命延生心经》 Taishang Xuanling doumu dasheng Yuanjun Benming Yansheng Xinjing ), the Big Dipper, "with her great merit of medicine and healing, manages and harmonizes the five agents, balances the Vital Breaths ( 气 Qi ) of Yin and Yang, dissolves the stagnant and eliminates the evil and dark.
Under her mercy, those who miss the time of salvation catch up with the time of salvation. In charge of the safety of pregnancy and birth, as well as the healing of diseases, she takes the important role of Heavenly Healer ( 天医 Tianyi ) ". "Seated on her precious throne, the Big Dipper peacefully cultivates divine perfection, refines celestial and terrestrial spirits, concentrates Vital Breath with an empty mind, and enters the Mystery of Mysteries.
Breathing the numinous wind, gathering the purple void energy, she has attained the mysterious and numinous Sublime Dao, and releases infinite subtle rays penetrating the Pool of Essence ( 华池 - Hua Chi ). Nine golden lotuses, as incarnations of the rays, give out greater and greater light after seven days in the pood. The light rises to the Nine-Essence Heavens ( 九华天 Jiu Hua Tian ) and transforms into the Nine Great Treasure Pavilions."
In the pavilions, the Nine Perfect Vital Breaths concentrate and manifest themselves as the Nine Emperors of the Dao Body:
The 1st is the Heavenly Emperor ( 天皇 - Tian Huang ) - Vega Star
The 2nd is Purple Subtlety ( 紫微 - Zi Wei ) - Polaris Star
The 7 Northern Constellation Stars (called “Bei Dou Qi Xing 北斗七星”):
The 3rd is the Lusty Wolf ( 贪狼 - Tan Lang ) - Dubhe - α UMa
The 4th is the Giant Gate ( 巨门 - Ju Men ) - Merak - β UMa
The 5th is the Store of Wealth ( 禄存 - Lu Cun ) - Phecda - γ UMa
The 6th is the Civil Chief ( 文曲 - Wen Qu ) - Megrez - δ UMa
The 7th is the Pure and Chaste ( 廉贞 - Lian Zhen ) - Alioth - ε UMa
The 8th is the Military Chief ( 武曲 - Wu Qu ) - Mizar - ζ UMa
The 9th is the Troop Destroyer ( 破军 - Po Jun ) - Alkaid - η UMa
Full Name of The Nine Emperor Gods:
九皇大玉皇君 - 勾陈上宫太极天皇大帝
九皇二玉皇君 - 紫薇垣宫北极紫薇大帝
九皇三玉皇君 - 天枢宫阳明贪狼太星君
九皇四玉皇君 - 天漩宫阴精巨门元星君
九皇五玉皇君 - 天玑宫真人禄存贞星君
九皇六玉皇君 - 天权宫玄冥文曲纽星君
九皇七玉皇君 - 玉衡宫丹元廉贞纲星君
九皇八玉皇君 - 闓阳宫北极武曲纪星君
九皇九玉皇君 - 瑶光宫天冲破军关星君
Another group of Nine Stars of Big Dipper more popular in Chinese Folk Religion & Chinese Metaphysical Studies / Feng Shui:
- 1st Star - Tan Lang Tai Xing Jun (贪狼太星君) - Dubhe - α UMa
- 2nd Star - Ju Men Yuan Xing Jun (巨门元星君) - Merak - β UMa
- 3rd Star - Lu Cun Zhen Xing Jun (禄存贞星君) - Phecda - γ UMa
- 4th Star - Wen Qu Niu Xing Jun (文曲纽星君) - Megrez - δ UMa
- 5th Star - Lian Zhen Gang Xing Jun (玉廉贞纲星君) - Alioth - ε UMa
- 6th Star - Wu Qu Ji Xing Jun (武曲紀星君) - Mizar - ζ UMa
- 7th Star - Po Jun Guan Xing Jun (破军关星君) - Alkaid - η UMa
- 8th Star - Zuo Fu Da Dao Xing Jun (左辅大道星君) - Alcor A (Invisible Star)
- 9th Star - You Bi Da Dao Xing Jun (右弼大道星君) - Alcor B (Invisible Star)
In 2009, it was independently reported by two groups of astronomers (Eric Mamajek et al., and Zimmerman et al.) that Alcor actually is itself a binary, consisting of Alcor A and Alcor B (a red dwarf star), and that this binary system is most likely gravitationally bound to Mizar. Few thousand years ago, Anicent Taoist Texts already recorded there were 2 invisible stars near Wu Qu Xing (武曲星) - Mizar, which together, consist of 9 stars in Big Dipper.
The Nine Emperors of the Dao Body ( 九皇道体 Jiu Huang Dao Ti ) are the Nine Stellar Sovereigns of the Dipper. According to the Seven Slips of a Cloudy Satchel, "the Nine Stars are the numinous root of the Nine Heavens, the bright bridge of the sun and moon, and the ancestral abyss of all things. Therefore, Heaven has nine Vital Breaths corresponding with the Nine Stars as their numinous pivot; the Earth has Nine Prefectures with the Nine Stars as their spiritual master; Man has Nine Apertures with the Nine Stars as their Mansion of Destiny.
The Nine Palaces of Yin and Yang refer to the Nine Stars for their doors; the Five Sacred Mountains and Four Holy Rivers ( 四渎 Si Du ) correspond with the Nine Stars as their abyss and mansion." The Big Dipper, as the mother of nine stars, is in charge of the production and life of Heaven, Earth and all things.
Big Dipper Related Posts:
Nine Emperor Gods Festival （九皇爷诞)
Bu Gang Ta Dou (步罡踏斗) - Pacing The Big Dipper
Taoist Big Dipper (7 Stars) Talisman - 太上玄靈北斗七星符