Origin of Tai-Sui (太岁)
Originally, Tai-Sui (太岁), Grand Duke Of Jupiter, was an IMAGINARY Jupiter (岁星 / 木星）, that follows the exact path of Jupiter in the opposite direction, thereafter, transformed into a group of 60 deities.
Ancient Chinese Astronomy,Astrology and Fortune Telling used Chinese Calender that were calculated using 10 Heavenly Stems (十天干) & 12 Earthly Branches （十二地支） ,which combined the 2 which produced 60 years cycles (六十花甲).
Jupiter revolves the Sun every 11.86 Earth years, and this was how the 12 Earthly Branches came into play in the subject of divination. The celestial sphere was divided into 12 sections, each representing two hours of a day. Jupiter moves into each of these 12 sections yearly, which forms the 12 astrological signs.
Since Jupiter’s period is 11.86 years and the celestial sphere consists of 12 sections, it does not synchronize to give an accurate interpretation of the astrological signs. After a long period, the error will be noticeable, that was how the concept of Tai Su (太岁) came about. Tai Sui (the year star, also the Great Duke of Jupiter) is an intangible (imaginary) star that was created to correct this error between the 12 branches and Jupiter’s period. It revolves the celestial sphere in exactly 12 Earth years. With the introduction of Tai Sui, the astrological signs can then be interpreted with consistency.
The day that Tai Sui transits into a new section of the celestial sphere is on the Li-Chun (立春) - “Beginning Of Spring”.
Now, You know that Tai Sui is not just the group of 60 Taoist deities; it originated for the purpose of math and science.
Praying to the Tai-Sui Deities
In the whole 60 years cycle of the Chinese Lunar Calender, there are total of 60 Tai Suis (六十太岁). One Tai-Sui is in charge of one particular year of the 60 years cycle. In different Taoist Texts, there are slightly different names given to the 60 Tai Suis.
Out of all these 60 Tai Suis, there's an Overall In-charge of all Tai Sui. His name is Yin Jiao (殷郊) – son of the Evil King Zhou of Shang Dynasty 商朝紂王之子 (with 3 Heads and 6 Arms 生有三頭六臂). Due to his fierce looking face, nowadays, he is being given the image of a Little Boy holding the Banner with Dang Nian Tai Sui (当年太岁), or Zhi Nian Tai Sui (值年太岁) written on it.
On the beginning of a new year, there will be 4 types of conflicts between the Tai-Sui Of the Year (Dang Nian Tai Sui -当年太岁) - and some of the 12 Earth branches (12 Chinese Zodiacs).
The 4 conflicts are:
刑太岁 - Punishment Of Tai-Sui
沖太岁 - Opposing The Taisui
破太岁 - Destruction Of The Taisui
害太岁 - Harming The Taisui
If Tai-Sui (太岁) of that year crosses Your zodiac path, then You will have bad luck.
To pray to Tai Sui (During Chinese New Year / or Thanking Tai-Sui during Year End):
If You have very low budget, You may simply just follow the majority Chinese Folks who go to a Big Chinese Temple and buy incense sticks and Joss Papers and pray to the Tai-Sui Deity in charge of the Year. This method will at least still give You a peace of mind for one year but actually doesn't do much benefit to You.
If You have very high budget, the it is advisable to seek help from a Taoist Master, who caters a proper full set of Tai-Sui Prayer for You, which include hand written Tai-Sui Talismans, filled with Your Date Of Birth and Full Name, and go through a proper Tai-Sui Ritual for You. You may want to seek help from Taoist Sorcery Master. You have to provide Your Date Of Birth and Chinese Name (If You are a Chinese) and the fee for Tai-Sui Ritual is not cheap either.
According to Taoist Practice, the Best & Accurate Day to pay respect to a the Lord Tai Sui of the New Lunar Year starts on the day of Li Chun (立春) - The Beginning of the Spring Season.
Important: Do not seek help to cast Black Magic Spells onto anyone just for fun. Do not harm the innocent people. Make sure You can provide good enough valid reasons, even if You can afford to pay the high fee.