Search This Blog

Important Note: There is consultation fee and ritual service charge when You seek help. The consultation fee & service charge are quite expensive and not anybody can afford it, or interested to pay for it. Kindly ask how much is the consultation service and ritual service fee when You seek help.

Email Enquiry:

Chinese Hell Gift Package - To Curse Someone Dead

Have You been Wronged or Bullied?  Are You thinking about how to seek revenge or a pay back on someone or a group of people?


CHINESE HELL GIFT PACKAGE - Beautiful & Nicely Wrapped

Someone is wishing me dead...  Someone wants to kill me... 

Most Western Folks only heard about Chinese Hell Bank Notes and have seen them online but they never know, heard of, or have seen the "Hell Gift Bag".

Hell Gift Package contains more than just Hell Bank Notes. Inside the package, it contains all kind of goodies (made of papers) that a ghost might need to use in the underworld.

In Chinese Culture, Hell Bank Notes and Hell Gift Packages are to be burnt as offerings to the deceased, and by no mean, sent to any Living Person.

To received a Hell Bank Note as a Gift by a living person, not only it is highly offensive but also considered extremely bad luck... Even worse, when You are receiving  a huge big pack of Hell Gift, addressed to Your name.

Some folks will question why need to spend so much money on a Hell Goodie Bag, when a cheap piece of Hell Bank Note is suffice to represent the same meaning.

Hong Gan! Suay Ah!  Na-Beh! KNNBCCB! Fucking Hell!

Not only that.. The beauty of sending Hell Gift Pack is.... 
It  creates  a sense of humour and feeling of fear combined onto  the victim.  Your enemy wants to laugh but cannot because he is in fear. He wants to be scared also cannot because it is damn hell of funny. Therefore, he will self-destruct by laughing his way to nervous breakdown. Imagine he goes around showing and telling his friends about someone has sent him the Hell Goodie Bag. They will be burst out laughing instead of worrying about him.

The BEST TIME to send Hell Gift Parcel to Your target is DURING HIS BIRTHDAY or ANY IMPORTANT FESTIVALS  related to his / her culture.

The most extreme sarcastic method is to send Hell Gift Bag by Registered Mail, and the parcel will be brought to the Receiver (The person You hate or wish dead) with a "human touch" by a real human, THE POSTMAN.

How can Western Folks use Chinese Hell Goodie Bags?
  •  Birthday Presents for Your hated ones
  • As Christmas Presents for Your hated ones   
  • Happy Burning during Halloween Party
  • As Pinatas at children parties


"Bro, Can help me send "Hell Gift" Parcel to a person?"

"Hell Gift" Parcel Delivery Service is ONLY  catered for Western Folks and Foreigners who are unable to get hold of Hell Gift Pack in their own countries and still want the Hell Goodies to send to their folks, whether just for fun during Halloween Party or to remind someone You wish him / her dead.

 The service charge for creating "Bring Bad Luck" Talisman is more expensive than paying for the Hell Gift Parcel and Delivery Service combined.

Related Article: Learn How To Hit The Villain ( 打小人)

Academic Excellence Talisman

"Do you have any talisman that can help improve a person's memory and make him learn things faster?"

Some folks want talismans that can help them or their children to improve on studies, good memories and score well in exams..

After going through several Taoist Talismans for Education Wise, these are the Ultimate 3 In 1 combination for Educational Success.

Academic Excellence Talisman is made up of 3 Talismans group together:
  • "Pass Exams With Flying Colours" Talisman
  • "Wen Chang" Talisman
  • "Extreme Concentration" Talisman
"Pass Exams With Flying Colours" Talisman -
This talisman stop examination phobia and get rid of anxiety while sitting for exams. Many students study very hard for their exams but when come to actual sitting for the paper, their mind suddenly goes blank. This "Pass Exams With Flying Colours" Talisman will get rid of Your anxiety and let You complete Your exam paper smoothly and achieve excellent results.

"Wen Chang" Talisman (文曲星君符) -
Wen Chang(文昌), or Wen Qu Xing Jun(文曲星君) is a Taoist deity in Chinese Mythology, known as the God of Culture and Literature. In actual fact, Wen-Chang is a constellation of six stars in the vicinity of the Great Bear. Wen Chang has been called upon by Chinese scholars and Chinese students for academic help over thousands of years. With the Blessing of Wen Chang Deity, he will spiritually guide the students, who worshiped him, on the journey to Academic Excellence. Chinese parents, who are still very strong in Chinese Custom and Culture will never forget to bring their children to worship Wen Chang Deity,so as to seek his blessings for getting good grades in school. If You are a student from Western Country, who has faith in Taoism, You shall also get the same blessing from Wen Chang Deity.

"Extreme Concentration" Talisman -
This talisman help a student to focus 100% on his studies. With 100% concentration, the student will able to memorize and remember everything on what he /she has studied. This way, this student definitely will gonna score well for his / her exams with flying colours.

If You can read Chinese Characters, You will notice "麒麟" (Qi Lin, also spelled as kyrin or kirin in Japanese) written on the talisman. It is actually, a talisman to invoke the Qi-Lin, a devine creature, to come forward for assistance.

The Qi-Lin (kirin or kylin) is one of the “Four Divine Creatures” (四灵兽) that are often mentioned in ancient Chinese texts. The other three are the Phoenix, Turtle and Dragon. The mythical Qi-Lin is an oxen-hooved animal with a dragon-like head surmounted by a pair of deer’s antlers and flame-like head ornaments. It has the scales of a snake and a hairy and curly tail.

Qi-Lin appears only during the reign of an outstanding ruler or when a great sage is born or dies. Legends tell that the Qilin has appeared during the reigns of the legendary rulers, who were morally upright and benevolent, such as Fu Xi ( 伏羲), Huangdi (黄帝), Yao (尧) and Shun (舜).

The birth of the great sage Confucius was foretold by the arrival of a Qi-Lin.

A Qi-Lin, with a scroll in its mouth, appeared in the courtyard of his parents’ home. The scroll is called yu-shu (玉书 ), and had some words written on it (麒麟吐玉书).

The scroll served as an announcement of the will of Heaven. It disclosed that the baby to be born is going to be “a man of extraordinary good moral character and talent, an exemplar of human excellences.

Although he is not on the throne, he has the virtue of a king. During the weak Eastern Zhou rule, he can possibly be “Su Wang”, an uncrowned king. (Original text: 水精之子孙,衰周而素王)

On the same night of this happening, Confucius was born. The kirin was credited with bestowing Confucius to his parents, who have been longing for a son.

Hence, the belief “Kirin can deliver a child” . ( 麒麟送子) spreads. In ancient days, a male child was often called “Qi-Lin son” (麒麟儿 or 麟儿). The word Qi-Lin is also used to describe a brilliantly talented person.

In Feng Shui, it symbolizes joy, wisdom, magnificence, celebration, long life and famous children. A Qi-Lin Figurine / Statue  or a Qi-Lin Talisman is to help facilitate the success of children in their studies and grow up to be a Somebody.

Video Of Academic Excellence Talisman

Southern Mao Shan Sect (南传茅山派)

Southern Mao Shan Sect (南传茅山派) is also known as:
Mao Shan is also spelled as Mau Shan.

* Guang Dong Mao Shan Sect (广东茅山派)
* Mao Shan Shen Gong (茅山神功)

Take note that  it is known as "Guang Dong" Mao Shan Sect (广东茅山派) but it is a religious culture originated from the Hakka People of Hakka Village, located in Guang Dong Area. Southern Mao Shan Sect (南传茅山派),together with Mao Shan Shen Gong (茅山神功) practices were then spread to other parts of South China and throughout South East Asia by the Southern Chinese Immigrants.

Below will share  the legend, popular belief and actual historical records of Southern Mao Shan Sect and the Legendary Grand Masters of the Sect.

Popular Belief and Legend:
The 3 Legendary Grand Masters of Southern Mao-Shan Lineage (南传茅山派):

* Zhang Fa Wang Gong (张法旺公) - 张子兴 (Zhang Zi Xing)
Native of Xīngníng County (兴宁)

* Hu Fa Wang Gong (胡法旺公) - 胡保清(Hu Bao Qing)
Originates from Wǔhuá 五華 county in Meizhou 梅州, Guangdong / Wuhua district of Kunming city 昆明市, Yunnan.

* Zhu Fa Wang Gong (朱法旺公) - 朱志飞 (Zhu Zhi Fei)
Ancestral hometown was in Tong Hang[塘坑], located in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan [东莞], borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west. It was in central Guangdong province.

Note: Fa Wong Gong (法旺公) is a Title Of Respect

Zhang Zi Xing (张子兴), Hu Bao Qing (胡保清) and Zhu Zhi Fei (朱志飞) proceed to Mao Shan Mountain to learn Taoist Magic Skills. They met Guō Fǎ Qiáng [郭法強] (The Great Immortal Guō Xiù Quán [郭秀全大仙]) and he took them as his disciples.

The three brothers' teachings are also known as the Brother’s Denomination/Sect (兄弟教).

Three of them took the Oath to become sworn brothers on the 2nd day of the 10th Month in the lunar calendar at around midnight (11pm-1am). This day has now become the Festival of Brother Zhang and Brother Hu - Zhang Fa Wang Gong (张法旺公) and Hu Fa Wang Gong (胡法旺公).

After 3 years of training, Hu Bao Qing (胡保清) and Zhu Zhi Fei (朱志飞) returned back to hometown, while Zhang Zi Xing (张子兴) stayed in Nan Yang (Malay Archipelago) to show filial piety to the master for 10 years (张老师公留在南洋受孝恩师十年).

Zhang Fa Wang Gong (Brother Zhang) taught his Zhang family the Sheng Gong Xian Fa (神功仙法) and name it as Zhang Jia Jiao (张家教) - The Zhang Family Branch. In Zhang Family Branch, only a person with sir-name Zhang can be the successor of the next head master.

Zhang Fa Wang Gong also taught Sheng Gong Xian Fa (神功仙法) to folks who are not under Zhang Family and name it, Hao Tian Zheng Xing Jiao (昊天真心教).

Back in China, Hu Fa Wang Gong (胡法旺公) taught his Taoist Magical Skills only to 2 women , Cai Lao Ru Ren (蔡老孺人) and Huang Lao Ru Ren (黃老孺人).

After Zhang Fa Wang Gong returned back to China, he taught Taoist Magical Skills to Hu Xiu Hua (胡秀華) and called for making a tablet of Hu Fa Wang Gong and gave him the Title of Mao-Shan Shi Zhu (茅山
師主) and place on the altar with a couplet written "文雄光北斗、武略振南天".

Hu Fa Wang Gong (胡法旺公) Video Documentary

Actual historical records of  Hu Fa Wang (胡法旺): 

Hu Fa Wang (胡法旺)  was born in 1386 , 24th day of 8th lunar month , between 7am to 9am (辰时). He had 2 biological brothers, Hu Deng (胡澄) and Hu Hai (胡海). Three of them relocate from Feng Shun County , Tang Xi Town, Shi Gang Village (丰顺县汤西镇石岗村) to Wu Hua County , Shuang Hua Town , Xia Hu Village (五华县双华镇下湖寨).

Due to corruption of officials  in the Ming Court, times were hard and people had no way of making a living. Hu Fa Wang (胡法旺), together with Zhang Fa Qing (张法青) and Liu Bo (廖伯) became sworn brothers and proceed to  Mao Shan Mountain, located at Ju-Rong County, Jiangsu Province (江苏省句容县茅山) to learn Taoist Magical Skills. After learning real Taoist magical Skills, they gained supernatural power.

Note: Historical Record state that  Hu Fa Wang (胡法旺), together with Zhang Fa Qing (张法青) and Liao Bai (廖伯) became sworn brothers. In popular legend, Hu Fa Wang  - Hu Bao Qing (胡保清), together wth Zhang Zi Xing (张子兴) and Zhu Zhi Fei (朱志飞) became sworn brothers.

During Emperor Yong Le's period, 1402 to 1424, due to turmoil and chaos of war, there was food crisis in the Palace.  Hu Fa Wang's Brother ,  Hu Deng (胡澄) was given the mission to deliver soldiers' provisions to Beijing within a deadline, or else death befall whole family if exit the deadline. Upon knowing the news, Hu Fa Wang (胡法旺), together with Zhang Fa Qing (张法青) and Liao Bai (廖伯) came for assistance, applied  their Taoist Magical Skills, they were able to deliver  the goods safely before reaching the deadline and save the capital from falling apart.

Emperor Jing Tai ,1449 to 1457, took note of their meritorious service, conferred :
* Deng Gong (澄公) -Hu Deng (胡澄) as "Officer of Five Districts" (五城兵马司都指挥副史)
* Fa Wang Gong as "Protection National Sorcery Master" (护国法师)
* Zhang Fa Qing (张法青) and Liao Bai (廖伯) as "Protection National General" (护国大将军)

After that, the 3 sworn brothers welcome 2 more new comers - Chen Wan Yi Lang (陈万一郎) and Wei Shi Lou (魏石楼). They became known as the Five Gallants (五义). They protected the country and help the folks.

The White Lotus Sect ( Bai Lian Jiao 白蓮教 )

The White Lotus Sect (Bai Lian Jiao 白莲教) was a millenarian movement with Buddhist traditions that several times in history ignited large-scale popular uprisings against the ruling dynasties. The religious background of the White Lotus Sect goes back to the Pure Land School (Jing Tu Zong - 净土宗) whose oldest patriarch, Huiyuan 慧远 (334-416 CE), founded White Lotus Societies (Bai Lian She 白莲社 or Lian She 莲社 "Lotus Societies") in Donglin Monastery 东林寺 near Mt. Lushan 庐山.

During the Northern Song Period 北宋 (960-1126), White Lotus societies spread all over Southern China. They were supported by monasteries as well as by rich landowners. In the mid-12th century, the monk Ci-Zhao 慈照 (worldly name Mao Ziyuan 茅子元) founded a new Buddhist School out of these societies, the White Lotus School (Bai Lian Zong 白莲宗). The adherents of this school venerated the Amitabha Buddha 阿弥陀佛 and observed the Five Buddhist Precepts (Wu-Jie 五戒) that were also a focal point of the Pure Land teaching.

Mao Ziyuan also adopted the method of the Tiantai School 天台宗 to illustrate the teachings of the Buddha by drawings and pictures, which made it much easier to attract a wider followership. He also compiled confessional rules for daily worship, the Bai Lian Chen Chao Chan Yi (白莲晨朝忏仪). In order to connect the scattered Lotus Societies, he erected a Lotus Repentance Temple (Lianchantang 莲忏堂) on the shores of Lake Dinghshan 淀山湖, near Kunshan 昆山, Jiangsu, adopted the title of Master (daoshi 导师) and assembled an auditorium to which he preached the teachings of the White Lotus School.

The newly founded White Lotus School was officially forbidden, and Mao Ziyuan had to leave Kunshan for Jiujiang 九江, Jiangsi. Yet, because the teachings of his school were quite simple and easy to understand, the White Lotus Sect ("sect" in the sense of not being an officially acknowledged confession) attracted a lot of adherents not only in the Lower Yangtse region, but also in other parts of China.

When the Mongols founded the Yuan dynasty 元 (1279-1368), the White Lotus School was officially acknowledged and even sponsored by the government. It therefore became such an important branch of Buddhism that some believers even participated in the propagation of the faith as "Lotus people" (Lian Dao Ren 莲道人) in private temples at home (tang'an 堂庵). Because they retained the everyday clothes and did not shave their heads, they were also called "Monks With Hairs" (Fa Seng 发僧). Their private temples became such important clerical institutions that sons commonly inherited their father's duty of managing these semi-public prayer halls.

The most popular deities were the Amitabha Buddha, the Guanyin Bodhisattva, and the Da-Shi-Zhi 大势至 (Mahasthamaprapta) (together called the Three Amida Saints 弥陀三圣). The adherents prayed for health and fortune, and rich believers sponsored the building of official institutions like streets, bridges or temples. The owners of private temples often belonged to the most wealthy families in the cities and had close ties to the government.

In the course of time the teachings of Mao Ziyuan changed somewhat, especially among the common populace that developed their own ideas of the White Lotus religion. It was a very popular belief that the Amitabha Buddha would descend from Heaven as a redeemer of mankind. Adherents of this millenarian branch of the White Lotus School assembled at night and soon began to rise weapons against the Yuan dynasty in order to hasten the advent of the Amitabha Buddha or the Bodhisattva Maitreya 弥勒佛.

Coming Of The Mi Le Fo 弥勒佛 (Maitreya) Scriptures

Therefore in 1308, the Yuan court prohibited the White Lotus School in total and was only allowed open confession again a few years later. In 1322, it was declared illegal again because more and more White Lotus groups had begun to fight openly against local governments. The most important leaders of White Lotus rebel groups were Han Shantong 韩山童, Liu Futong 刘福通, Xu Shouhui 徐寿辉 and Zou Pusheng 邹普胜. Their adherents fought to topple the Yuan dynasty and to welcome the "King of Brilliance" (mingwang 明王), i.e. the Maitreya Boddhisattva. The White Lotus groups constituted indeed an important reason for the downfall of the Yuan dynasty.

Based on this experience, the White Lotus School was prohibited under the Ming Dynasty 明 (1368-1644), and for good reasons, because the foundation of the new dynasty was no reason to cease belief in the advent of a redeemer deity. During the early Ming period, White Lotus uprisings in all provinces were successfully put down. The various secret White Lotus societies later changed their names and were not easily recognized as White Lotus offsprings. They adopted names like "teaching" of the:

Jinchan 金禅教 "Golden Zen"
Wuwei 无为教 "Non-activity"
Longhua 龙华教 "Flower of the Dragon"
Wukong 悟空教 "Aware of the Voidness"
Huanyuan 还源教 "Back to the Origin"
Yuandun 圆顿教 "Yuan Dun"
Hongyang 弘阳教 "Vast Yang"
Mi-Le 弥勒教 "Maitreya"
Jingkong 淨空教 "Pure Voidness
Dacheng 大成教 "Great Completeness"
Sanjiao 三阳教 "Three Yang"
Hunyuan 混源教 "Origin of the Primordial Chaos"
Wenxiang 闻香教 "Sensing the perfume"
Luodao 罗道教 "Arhat Way"

Because they were not allowed to establish a central authority, their rituals and services differed from each other, as well as the central deities venerated by the adherents, albeit the most important deity for most White Lotus sects was the Maitreya.

During the Zheng-De's (正德) reign, a new deity appeared among White Lotus adherents, namely the Wu Sheng Lao Mu 无生老母 "Birthless Old Mother", that was seen as a form of transcendent Buddha that never incarnated but ever existed without coming into being or transforming into a non-being form. She would nevertheless come down upon earth in the human shape of children, would protect them from harm and guide them safely back to Heaven, the "Home Of True Voidness" (Zhen Kong Jia Xiang 真空家乡). The different schools also used different writings to propagate their faith.

The behaviour of these various groups toward the government was therefore also not stringent. While some cooperated as normal religious institutions, others were openly opposed towards the local government. The adherents of the latter groups came mainly from the lower strata of society, like landless peasants or unemployed persons. In 1420, Tang Sai'er 唐赛儿 rebelled against the Ming government and in 1622, Xu Hong Ru 徐鸿儒.

The most important White Lotus sect during the late Ming period was the Wen Xiang School (also called Da Cheng School 大乘教 (Mahayana)) that had been founded by Wang Sen 王森 and Wang Haoxian 王好贤 in Luanzhou 滦州. They managed to attract the support even of more wealthy people so that they were able to purchase large tracts of land and acted as employer to peasants and workers.

During the Qing period 清 (1644-1911), the situation got even more aggravated. There were more than one hundred various branches of the White Lotus school. In 1774, the White Lotus leader of the Qingshui Sect 清水教 (Pure Water Sect), Wang Lun 王伦, rose in rebellion in the province of Shandong. Between 1796 and 1804, the heretic Lotus societies in the border region of the provinces Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu aroused a protracted local war against the Qing authorities. This was the first large-scale popular uprising that initiated the downfall of the Qing dynasty, although this had in many cases not been the main objective of the rebellions.

In 1813, the Tian Li Sect  天理教 - "Heavenly Order", under Li Wencheng 李文成, disturbed the local governments in northern China. Only in the second half of the 19th century, the leaders of White Lotus groups adopted political plans.

The White Lotus Rebellion 1796-1804

In the deeply forested border area between the provinces Hubei, Sichuan and Shaanxi, a lot of homeless "wandering" people (Liu-Min 流民) had gathered to escape the grip of landowners, creditors and tax collectors. Until 1772 and 1773, already several hundred thousand persons belonged to these outlaws, and numbers constantly rose by immigrants from the provinces of Henan, Anhui and Jiangxi.

In the bad climate of the region, which made agriculture a scarcely profitable business, the inhabitants made their living by working in the land clearing business, in the paper industry, or in the smithy business. Under such hard conditions, a lot of people resorted to the harbour of religion and became followers of the many secret White Lotus Societies. A saviour deity that only required people living in a modest and cooperative way with each other (sharing income, sharing food, mutual support in case of need) provided a strong appeal for the White Lotus leaders.

The first leader proclaiming the coming of a new age was Fan Ming De 樊明德 in Henan. Liu Song 刘松, Liu Zhi Xie 刘之协 and Song Zhi Qing 宋之清 in Hebei, Sichuan and Anhui even prognosticated the return of the Ming dynasty (they used the character code Niu-Ba 牛八 for the character of the surname of the Ming rulers, Zhu 朱). In 1795, a collective uprising was carefully planned, and groups willing to participate were equipped with swords and gunpowder. The local government instantly took harsh measures to catch and arrest all adherents of the White Lotus societies and thereby even intensified the resistance of the White Lotus leaders against government and dynasty.

In February 1796, Zhang Zhengmo 张正谟 and Nie Jieren 聂杰人 rose in rebellion in the region of Yidu 宜都 and Zhijiang 枝江 in Hubei. A month later Wang Conger 王聪儿 and Yao Zhifu 姚之富 rebelled in the region of Xiangyang 襄阳. The various rebel groups did not cooperate with each other but fought for themselves, barricaded behind timber palisades or fortified villages to resist the local gendarms. Only the troops of the Xiangyang rebels were able to build up a large army that was able to challenge the Qing troops in the field. Half a year later White Lotus groups in Sichuan joined the rebellion under the leadership of Xu Tiande 徐添德 in Dazhou 达州 and Wang Sanhuai 王三槐 and Leng Tianlu 冷天禄 in Dongxiang 东乡 (modern Xuanhan 宣汉).

In February 1797, the rebel armies of Hubei spread out and looted all the region and began wandering to the neighbouring provinces. The regular Qing troops were only able to persue them and was not able to root out any base of the locust-like White Lotus army. In July the Qing finally managed to encircle the rebel base in Sichuan, so that the Hubei rebels approached for relief. Although Wang Conger was talented enough to build up effectively brigades under different commanders, his soldiers were not able to cooperate with each other, so that each company after the other was repelled and disintegrated.

In March 1798, the Hubei rebels were trapped by the Qing army near Yunxi 郧西, and its leaders died. The Sichuan rebels likewise had suffered great losses. Yet the files of the rebels were constantly filled with new recruits, and the local population supported the insurgents, provided them with food and gunpowder, carried their supplies and scouted them through the mountain hills. In the early year of 1800 the rebels were nevertheless again defeated near Jiangyou 江油 in Sichuan.

The Qing generals had adopted a new method to cut the rebels off their supplies of material and recruits. The government had built palisades for villages and forcibly settled down the peasants of the hilly lands into these defense compounds (zhaibao 寨堡, cunluo 村落). All economic activities were to take place within these compounds. At the same time, village militia were recruited and trained to fight against White Lotus "bandits". These measures helped to deprived the White Lotus rebels of food and supplies and took them away the necessary manpower to staff their army. The Qing army step by step encircled the last rebel groups in the triangle of the provinces Hubei, Sichuan and Shaanxi, where the rebellion had begun. In late 1804 the war against the White Lotus heretics could be declared as terminated.

The nine years long White Lotus war had devastated a large number of districts in Central China. It had cost the lives of countless civilians and regular troops, including more than 400 high officers, and consumed more than 200 million liang (Taels) of silver, which corresponded to four times the annual revenues of the state treasury. It had proved the inability of the Qing government to cope effectfully with large-scale popular uprisings and the wide-spread corruption among both the civilian government and the military establishment.

The Heavenly Order Society

The Heavenly Order Society was one of the few White Lotus movement of late imperial China that managed to associate different groups into one. It came into being by the cooperation of the Bagua sect 八卦教 "Eight Trigrams" (also called Jiugong sect 九宫教 "Nine Palaces"), the Ronghua Society 荣华会, and the Baiyang 白阳教, Hongyang 红阳教 and Qingyang 青阳教 sects. The most important leaders of this new united groups were Li Wencheng 李文成 and Feng Keshan 冯克善 from Henan and Lin Qing 林清 from Daxing 大兴 near Beijing.

The society war organised in eight groups (corresponding to the eight trigrams). The mainly used scripture of the adherents was the San Fo Ying Iie Tong Guan Tong Shu 三佛应劫统观通书, and they venerated the Birthless Old Mother, but also the sun. They believed in the three progressive eons (sanji 三际), calling the past "dimension-less extreme" (wuji 无极), the present the "greatest extreme" (taiji 太极), and the future "sovereign extreme" (huangji 皇极), but also prognosticated the decline of the Red Sun (hongyang 红阳) and the ascent of the White Sun (baiyang 白阳), thus favouring the rise of a new dynasty.

In 1813, the Heavenly Order Society rose in rebellion against the Qing dynasty and devastated the provinces of Henan, Shandong and Zhili. Some groups even invaded the Imperial City.

More Posts