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San Shan Guo Wang (三山国王) - The 3 Tutelary Deities of Teochews & Hakkas

San Shan Guo Wang (三山国王) are the 3 Tutelary Deities of Teochews & Hakkas.

There are no temples in Singapore , dedicated to worship San Shan Guo Wang, so many  modern days Teochew Singaporeans & Hakkas Singaporeans have never heard or know who these 3 deities are.

There are many temples in South East Asia Countries dedicated to worship San Shan Guo Wang, but not Singapore.

When You happen to spot a San Shan Guo Wang Temple in any location, You will know there is a Teochew or Hakka Community living there.

The 3 Mountains:

The 3 mountains refer to the 3 mountains at Guan Dong Province, Jieyang City, Jie Xi County, He-Po Town (广东省揭阳市揭西县河婆镇):

- Jin Mountain (巾山)
- Ming Mountain (明山)
- Du Mountain (独山)

The 3 Mountain Deities:

- Deity Of Jin Mountain: Name - Lian Jie (连杰) ,Courtesy Name - Qing Hua (清化).
- Deity Of Ming Mountain: Name - Zhao Xuan(赵轩), Courtesy Name - Zhu Zheng (助政).
- Deity Of Du Mountain: Name - Qiao Jun (乔俊), Courtesy Name - Hui Wei(惠威).

The Main San Shan Guo Wang Temple in China:
Lin Tian Temple (霖田祖庙)

Origin of the Kings of the Three Mountains

According to the Qing dynasty General History of Guangdong, Mt. Jin and Mt. Ming & Mt. Du, stood in a triangular shape and three spirits came out of a crack in Mt. Jin. They called themselves brothers and declared that they were ordered to rule the three mountains, and that the boundary stone of Mt. Wang embodied their souls. They also told local people to construct temples and worship them. Accordingly, locals started to set up temples dedicated to them in Mt. Jin. Whenever afflicted by floods, droughts and epidemics, the local people always prayed for help. It worked every time. After the first Song emperor Zhao Kuangying came to the throne, Liu Chang refused to recognize his authority. The Song troops went down to the south to quell the uprising. Mr. Wang, a counselor to the Chao local government, asked the three spirits for help. Consequently, there came a heavy storm, accompanied by terrible thunder and lightning, which helped the Song troops very much. As a result, Liu's troops were totally routed and the southern coastal areas became peaceful again. It is said that when the Song emperor Tai sent his army to Taiyuan, he saw from outside the city's defense wall three golden-armored spirits, who rode horses and had spears in hands, rushing to the battle front. After the triumph, he saw the three spirits standing on the wall of the city. Then the emperor was told of the three-mountain spirits of the Chao district. After that, the emperor conferred the titles 'King of Lofty Virtue and Pristine Salvation Who Is Dedicated to the Nation' ( 清化盛德报国王 Qinghua Shengde Baoguo Wang ) on the spirit of Mt. Ming, 'King of Bright Tranquility and Protector Who Pacifies the Nation' ( 助政明肃宁国王 Zhuzheng Mingsu Ninguo Wang ) on the spirit of Mt. Jin, and 'King of Generous Correspondence and Grand Benevolence Who Enriches the Nation' ( 惠威宏应丰国王 Huiwei Hongying Fengguo Wang ) on the spirit of Mt. Du. He also had the Temple of Bright Blessing ( 明贶 Mingkuan ) constructed in their honour. Sacrificial offerings were held in due festivals.

In the Administrative History of the Chao District ( 潮州府志 Chaozhou Fuzhi ), a different version is given of the story of the Kings of the Three Mountains. The book claimed that, at the end of the Song dynasty, emperor Gong was captured by an ethnic minority regime in the north. With the help of Wen Tianxiang, a Song dynasty general, emperor Duan declared himself the new ruler of the Fu realm and established a new regime. When the Yuan troops went down to the south, the emperor, escorted by Zhang Shijie army, was leaving for the Chao district. In Jieyang county, however, they were surrounded again. Just at this dangerous moment, a violent storm changed the daytime into night. Three armies, led respectively by three generals, emerged from the three mountains and forcefully attacked the Yuan troops. They defeated the Yuan troops and saved General Zhang army. When the emperor and his ministers tried to express their gratitude, the three armies quickly withdrew into the mountains along the original route, disappearing within seconds. After the storm, they observed the surroundings carefully, finding themselves surrounded in three directions by mountains covered with green trees, white stones and drab soils. So the emperor conferred on the three mountains the title 'King of the Three Mountains'. When temples were set up to commemorate them, statues of three deities with green, white and brown faces were erected. The three mountains were Mt. Du, Mt. Jin and Mt. Ming.

Influence on Folk Culture

In folk culture, there are a lot of stories about the Kings of the Three Mountains and their miracles. In these stories, they either help people overcome disasters and diseases, or dispel floods, droughts and devastating wars. In fact, the Kings of the Three Mountains have become the local protectors of the Chao district, Guangdong province. Different days were dedicated to them as birthdays. The King of Generous Correspondence and Grand Benevolence Who Enriches the State is considered to be born on the sixteenth day of the third lunar month. The King of Bright Tranquility and Protector Who Pacifies the Nation is said to have been born on the twenty-eighth day of the second lunar month. The birthday of the King of Lofty Virtue and Pristine Salvation Who Is Dedicated to the Nation is on the twenty-fourth day of the third lunar month. On their birthdays, people in the Chao district and Chao people living in Taiwan and Southeast Asia always go to temples dedicated to the Kings of the Three Mountains to show their respect.

Video Documentary Of San Shan Guo Wang (三山国王)

Ci Hang Zheng Ren ( 慈航真人) - The Taoist Goddess Of Mercy

Many people only know the Buddhist Version Of Avalokitesvara and some Chinese only know the folk legends of Guan Yin (观音).

Chinese has no interest and no drive to "evangelise" the world to Taoism, therefore, hundreds of Taoist Scriptures are not translated to English and other languages. Due to this reason, many people don't know much about Taoist Deities.

There are 2 Chinese Texts that record the history of Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人):
1) The Celestial Beings Of Past Dynasties (历代神仙通鉴)
2) The Scripture Of Ling Bao (灵宝经)

Over here, the Original Taoist Version of Goddess Of Mercy will be revealed.

Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人) - "The True Person Of Traveling Of Compassion", is one of the earliest Immortals. Since the period of Yin/Shang Dynasty (殷代/商朝), it already had records of her.

Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人) is one of the 12 disciples under Yuan Shi Tian Zhun (元始天尊), known as 12 Golden Immortals(十二金仙). She is one and only female immortal of these 12 Golden Immortals(十二金仙). In pure Taoism, she is originally, already a female form, and not an image change of male to female form by the Chinese.

Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人) can appear in the human realm in 32 different human forms (三十二应), some of which are males, others females.

In Taoist Pictorial Form, Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人) is shown sitting on a Mystical Lion.

In 1119, the Song Emperor - Hui Zong (徽宗) conferred her the title "Heavenly Lord Ci Hang Pu Du Yuan Tong Zi Zai" (慈航普渡圆通自在天尊).

Base on Taoist Scripture, Guan Shi Yin (观世音) is an action rather than an Official Title of any Deity.

There are 3 Taoist Festivals catered to venerate her:

The Flower Month (花月) - 19th day of 2nd Chinese Lunar Month
Ci Hang Zhen Ren prayed for the dead to be liberated from hell and blessings for the all living things.

The Lychee Month (荔月) - 19th day of 6th Chinese Lunar Month
The day Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人) subjugated Ning Bo Xian Zi (凌波仙子) - A sea spirit, and gain the Tao.

The Chrysanthemum Month (菊月) - 19th day of 9th Chinese Lunar Month
The day Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人) completed her final duty and return back to Pu Tuo Luo Qie Mountain(普陀落伽岩潮音洞) to sit on the throne - Gain Immortality.

 Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人) or Guan Shi Yin Pu Sa (观世音菩萨) ?

To some folks of Pure Taoist Faith, Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人) has the same goal as Guan Yin Pu Sa (观音菩萨), which promised to answer the cries and pleas of all sentient beings and to liberate them from their own karmic woes, but is not Buddhist's Guan Yin Pu Sa (观音菩萨). However,  there are also other folk and even Taoist Priests agree that, Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人) and the Buddhist's Guan Yin Pu Sa (观音菩萨) is the same spiritual being, because she will and had appeared in different forms and contexts to preach her teaching and to save the mortals.

 Pure Taoists will revered Goddess of Mercy as Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人).

To the folks of Pure Buddhist Faith, they don't know who is Ci Hang Zheng Ren (慈航真人) , but only know that Guan Yin Pu Sa (观音菩萨) is originally a Bodhisattva in Male Form from Buddhism , then the Chinese Buddhism changed her into female form, and later copied over by Taoism.

Pure Chinese Buddhists will revered Goddess of Mercy as Guan Shi Yin Pu Sa (观世音菩萨).

Full Detailed Videos Of Lecture on Ci Hang Zheng Ren ( 慈航真人) by a Taoist Priest

Goddess Of Mercy in Chinese Folk Religion / Taoist Sorcery

To the Folks of Chinese Folk Religion or Taoist Sorcery (Magical) Path, they don't bother much about which religion Goddess Of Mercy is originated, as long as they can invoked her to possess the Spirit Medium and the rituals and talismans of Goddess of Mercy produce positive results.

Video Of Guan Yin Ma In Spirit Medium Possession

The Original Ma-Zu Talisman (妈祖灵符) - A Must-Have Protection Talisman For Sea Workers, Seafarers & Oversea Travelers

This Protection Talisman is known as Tian Fei Jiu Ku Ling Yan Fu (天妃救苦灵验符) - The Tian-Fei (Ma Zu) Talisman of Eliminating Sufferings.

It is based on the Scripture of "Tai Shang Lao Jun Speaks on Tian-Fei Eliminating Suffering" (太上老君说天妃救苦灵验经).

This Protection Talisman Of Ma-Zu (妈祖) was the 1st and original  Ma-Zu (妈祖) Talisman, since the beginning of Ming Dynasty.

This Ma-Zu talisman is  hand drawn on yellow cloth and then empowered by reciting the Scripture of "Tai Shang Lao Jun Speaks on Tian-Fei Eliminating Suffering" (太上老君说天妃救苦灵验经) , plus the secret verses of Ma-Zu for activating the talisman.

There are many accidents happened to travelers / tourists while traveling oversea, by sea or air. The reason is when a person goes across the sea, the magnetic field / fate / luck of a person will change. If Your luck turn for the worst, You will be in DEEP SHIT.

There are many accidents You hear / watch from the news, such as sinking / overturn of Ships , airplanes crashed into the sea, tour buses / cars overturned and drop from the high way bridges / hill tops etc. Be protected, don't be the next victim.

As a Seafarer, Oversea Traveler, or even as a Pilot , Air Steward / Stewardess, You understand the power of the ocean waves and thunder storm that can kill You anytime. Don't forget the power of Tsunami that have killed many tourists .  Travel Insurance can't save your life.

By keeping this Original Ma-Zu (妈祖) Talisman, You will be protected from all the mishaps that might happen to You while You work on / travel across / fly above the Sea. Sea Goddess Ma-Zu (妈祖) will keep an eye on You to make sure You are safe and sound.

How to use  Ma-Zu (妈祖) Talisman?

1) Fold it and keep inside Your wallet.

2) Roll up and keep a mini container  and hang it on the neck as necklace, or hook on key-chain.

3) Frame it up and hang on the Ma-Zu Altar , together with the Ma-Zu Statue , or stand alone on that altar. Best for altar on the ship / boat , or the temple / shrine of Ma-Zu near the sea-side.  Light Up Incense sticks or burn Aroma Cones if You have created a Ma-Zu Altar.

Related Article: Chinese Patron Goddess Of The Sea - Ma Zu (妈祖)

Chinese Patron Goddess Of The Sea - Ma Zu (妈祖)

Ma-Zu (妈祖) is the Chinese patron goddess who protects seafarers, such as fishermen and sailors.

A real person named Lin Mo niang (林默娘)

Goddess Ma-Zu(妈祖) was born on 23rd Day of 3rd Lunar Month 960 CE (during the Song Dynasty 宋朝) as the seventh daughter of Lin Yuan (林愿) on Meizhou Island (湄洲岛), Fujian. - 福建路莆田县湄洲岛东螺村(宋太宗年间曾改为兴化军).

Her surname is Lin(林) and her name is Mo(默) and is also known as Lin Mo Niang (林默娘). Since the day she was born, she never cried and never creates trouble, thus she was given the name with the meaning "Silent Maiden" - Mo Niang (默娘).

At the age of 28 years old, on the 9th Day of 9th Lunar Month 987 CE, Mo Niang (默娘) was ascended to the Heaven at the Highest Peak of her hometown in Fujian Mei Zhou Island (湄洲岛).

Legends Of Ma-Zu (妈祖)

Legend stated that Lin Mo had the gift of predicting the weather  and super natural abilities (In ancient Fujian, folks were shamans and practitioners of witchcraft).

Lin Mo was at home weaving a tapestry when she fell into a trance, "seeing" the events that were taking her kin to a watery grave. She used her spiritual powers to transport herself to their sides. Propelling her elder brother (or father) to safety, she returned to rescue her father (or brother).

She was swimming homeward with her father clenched firmly between her teeth, when her mother noticed that Lin Mo, was slumped over her weaving. Believing she was ill, her concerned mother woke her. Lin Mo's trance was broken and her father drowned. Lin Mo walked into the sea and found her father, returning three days later with his body so he could be buried at home.

One legend stated when she was 28 years old, she ascended to heaven and became a goddess, and another legend stated that when she was 28 years old, a huge storm wrecked many fishing boats and trading vessels off the coast of Fujian, Mazu took a small boat, and rescued many of them, but eventually she herself succumbed to the waves and died and soon rose up to become a goddess.

After Lin niang (林默) became goddess, marine folklore is filled with tales of catastrophes averted when the goddess Ma-Zu, dressed in red, appeared to sailors as a warning that unseen storms were rising and that their voyages should be postponed, or guiding lost ships to safety, or even rescuing sailors from storms and shipwrecks.

Stories had been told that many seamen has recounted times when the goddess Ma-Zu appeared as a bright light on their troubled ships, arriving just in time to calm a storm and save their lives. Some said that Lin Mo could ride clouds across the ocean, and appear in the flesh to rescue them.

Between 1119 and 1126, Lu Yundi (路允迪) was caught in a dangerous storm while on a voyage to Korea. It was said that her spirit descended in the mast and saved him.

Qian Li Yan (千里眼) & Shun Feng Er (順风耳)

Mazu is usually depicted together with two guardian generals known as Qian Li Yan (千里眼) - "Eyes that see thousand miles" and  Shun Feng Er (順风耳) . They are two demons whom Mazu conquered and took them as her assistants.

Worshiping of Ma-Zu (妈祖)

Starting from Fujian, the practice of worshiping Mazu spreads to the neighboring coastal provinces of Zhejiang and Guangdong, and thence to all coastal areas of mainland China. With emigration and especially the Chinese diaspora of the 19th and 20th centuries, it further spread to Taiwan, Vietnam, Ryukyu, Japan, and South East Asia. The role of Mazu as patron goddess of the sea ensured that newly arrived immigrants often erected temples to her first, to give thanks for arriving safely.

Ma-Zu (妈祖) in Taoism

In Taoism, Ma-Zu is address as Tian Shang Sheng Mu(天上聖母).

According to Taoist Scripture, the Only & Official Taoist Scripture dedicating to Ma Zu, is known as Tai Shang Lao Jun Shuo Tian Fei Jiu Ku Ling Yan Jing (太上老君说天妃救苦灵验经). It is stated that Ma Zu was the Manifestation of the Energy from the Great North Dipper Star Group into a Lady Immortal (known as Miao Xing Yu Nü (妙行玉女) which had overcome multiple testing & obstacles before gaining her Immortal-hood.

After which, Miao Xing Yu Nü was called upon by the Supreme Lord (道德天尊) to the gathering for the appointment of the task to descend into the Mortal Realm to perform the necessary Salvation for the Suffering Beings.

Upon getting the appointment, Miao Xing Yu Nü made her Sincerest & Greatest Vow of ceasing of ALL Sufferings before she returned back to the Celestial Realm again and so, upon getting the Vow, Miao Xing Yu Nü was being sent off to get her Re-incarnation aka Manifestated into Mortal at Song Dynasty Jia Shen Year 23rd Day of Lunar 3 Month (AD 960宋朝建隆元年农历三月廿三日) in the Lin Family (降生莆田湄洲岛林家之中) – given Maiden Name as Lin Mo or Lin Mo Niang (林默/林默娘).

Since young, Mo Niang had been going around to assist the Needy, regardless of strangers or people she knew.

By the age of 8, one day while Mo Niang was out in the Sea-side to waiting for her father to return from the Sailing, a Elegant Lady approached her and passed her a few Books on Unknown Writings & Diagrams. Upon getting hold of the Books, Mo Niang was puzzled but after getting some advises from the Lady, Mo Niang accepted and promised the Lady to study all the information in the Books and understand the Diagrams.

By the age of 16, Mo Niang was able to use the Skills that mentioned in the Unknown Books to assist more Needy in her Hometown.

At the age of 28, on the 8th Night of Lunar 9 Month, Mo Niang got a dream from the Elegant Lady again, this time round Mo Niang finally knew who she was – Zi Guang Fu Ren (紫光夫人). After getting the advises from Zi Guang Fu Ren, Mo Niang decided to leave home on the 9th Day of Lunar 9 Month to gain her Immortal-hood at the Highest Peak in her hometown.

On Song Dynasty AD 987, 9th Day of Lunar 9 Month (宋雍熙四年九月初九日得道), Mo Niang got her Immortal-hood and was summoned back to the Celestial Realm to receive her Official Title before she was being sent back to the Mortal Realm to assist the Needy again.

Videos on History & Legend of (妈祖)

Important Worshiping Day Of Ma-Zu (妈祖)
Ma-Zu Festival - 23rd day of the 3rd lunar month of the Chinese Lunar Calendar

Who should pray to Ma-Zu (妈祖)
- Sailors
- Seamen
- Fishermen
- People who work on the sea - Oil Riggers
- People who travel on Cruise Ships
- Naval Officers / Naval Divers
- Tourists who travel oversea by air
- Pilots / Air stewards / Air Stewardesses  who always need to travel oversea by air

Why must pray to Sea Goddess Ma-Zu (妈祖)?

There are many accidents happened to travelers / tourists while traveling  oversea, by sea or air. The reason is when a person go across the sea, the magnetic field / fate / luck of a person will change. There are many accidents You hear / watch from the news, such as sinking / overturn of Cruise Ships , airplanes crash into the sea, tour buses overturned and drop from the high way bridges / hill tops etc. By praying to Ma-Zu (妈祖) before You go oversea, You will be protected from all the mishaps that might happen to You. When You return back safely, pray again to thank Ma-Zu (妈祖) for a safe journey home.

The Protection Talisman Of Ma-Zu (妈祖)

Protection Talisman Of Ma-Zu (妈祖灵符)

Related Article: The Original Ma-Zu Talisman (妈祖灵符) - A Must-Have Protection Talisman For Sea Workers, Seafarers & Oversea Travelers

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